Southern Kern Veterinary Clinic, Inc

4455 W Rosamond Blvd
Rosamond, CA 93560

(661)256-8121

www.southernkernvet.com

Vaccinations

Vaccines are preparations of killed microorganisms, living weakened microorganisms, etc. introduced into the body to produce immunity to a specific disease by causing the formation of antibodies.

Vaccines are very delicate compounds, which if handled or administered incorrectly will be ineffective or neutralized.

Vaccines are administered initially as a two-shot series and then annually or semiannually.

The vaccines and vaccine protocols listed below are tailored to our practice and geographic location and follow the guidelines of the AAEP.

Eastern & Western Encephalomyelitis: Encephalomyelitis is caused by a virus, which is transmitted by mosquitos. The virus causes inflammation of the brain and spinal cord.  The vaccine is very effective against the disease. The protection lasts 6 months, therefore we recommend administrating the vaccine twice a year(semiannually).

Tetanus Toxoid: Tetanus is a disease  caused by a specific toxin of a bacillus (Clostridium tetani)which usually enters the body through wounds. It is characterized by spasmodic contractions and rigidity of some or all of the voluntary muscles (especially of the jaw, face and neck). The bacteria is found in horse manure. The vaccine is very effective and administered once yearly. The vaccine is boostered in case of  laceration, surgery, or pentrating wounds.

Rabies: Rabies is a viral disease that infects the nervous system of  mammals. It is transmitted through contact with the saliva of infected animals. It is 100% fatal. The vaccine is given once yearly and is very effective.

West Nile Virus: West Nile virus is transmitted by mosquitos. The virus causes inflammation of the brain and spinal cord. Because Long Island has a long mosquito season and the vaccine protection lasts 6-7 months,  we recommend semiannual vaccination. Horses that travel to Florida should be boostered 2 weeks before travelling. Veterinarians in problem areas vaccinate 2-4 x per year.

Rhinopneumonitis: Rhinopneumonitis is a herpes virus which causes respiratory infections, abortions, and inflammation of the spinal cord. The vaccine is not  100% effective and the protection only lasts 10-12 weeks.  Pregnant  mares should be vaccinated at 3.5, 7 and 9 months from the breeding date. Horses that are travelling to shows, races, sales, etc. should be vaccinated every 3 months. Pleasure horses that do not travel should be vaccinated twice a year. The vaccine does not protect against the neurologic form of the disease.

Influenza: Influenza is a virus that causes high fever and respiratory infection. The vaccine is not 100% effective, and the protection lasts only 10-12 weeks. Horses travelling to shows, sales, racing events, etc..should be vaccinated every 3 months. Horses that do not travel should be vaccinated at least twice a year.

Potomac Horse Fever(PHF): Potomac Horse Fever is caused by the parasite Ehrlichia risticii. Horses are infected through small land snails that carry the parasite. It is not contagious and occurs more commonly in wet areas. The disease causes high fever, laminitis, and severe diarrhea. The vaccine is fairly effective and is administered once a year. It is administered 2-4 x yearly in -problem areas.

Strangles: Strangles is a bacterial disease caused by Streptococcus equi. It is highly contagious and causes the following signs: high fever, abscessed lymph nodes, and respiratory infection. Horses may develop guttural pouch infections, sinus infections, purpura hemorrhagica, laryngeal paralysis, and bastard strangles. There is an intranasal vaccine which is more effective than the intramuscular vaccine. The vaccine is given once a year except in endemic barns (that have frequent outbreaks) where semiannual vaccination is recommended.

West Nile Virus

West Nile Virus (WNV) causes encephalitis in birds, horses and humans.  The virus is transmitted from infected birds by mosquitoes.  Humans and horses appear to be especially susceptible.  Studies done by the U.S. Department of Agriculture show that infected horses will not transmit WNV to other horses or to people.  However care should be taken when handling blood from suspect animals.

Symptoms of disease caused by WNV may include the following:

  • Flu-like signs (fever and depression)
  • Skin twitching, especially around the muzzle.
  • Hypersensitivity to touch and sound
  • Driving or pushing forward without control
  • Incoordination

Because permanent neurological problems and death can occur, early recognition and initiation of treatment is important.  No specific treatment protocol exists however most cases will resolve with supportive therapy and anti-inflammatories.

Efforts to prevent disease in horses caused by WNV is through the use of the West Nile Vaccine from Fort Dodge Pharmaceuticals and through actions that will reduce exposure to mosquitoes.  The vaccine is safe and appears to be effective. AAEP vaccination guidelines recommend vaccinating twice a year.

The most effective way to limit the mosquito population is to destroy the mosquito larval habitat.  This is done by reducing the amount of standing water.  Water troughs should be cleaned at least once a week.  Keeping weeds trimmed and lawn mowed help eliminate areas where mosquitoes rest.  Directly protecting horses from mosquito bites is more difficult.  Fly and mosquito repellents may be helpful.  Products containing pyrethroids are considered safe for horses.   Spray stalls, aisle walls and other areas such as under shade trees where horses congregate.  Fans can also be used to discourage mosquitoes from residing in your barn.

Deworming recommendations

There are two methods used for deworming horses. The first method is to administer paste dewormers  every 6-8 weeks. The second method is to keep the horse on a daily dewormer and paste deworm twice a year.

1. Paste Deworming Protocol:

This schedule is recommended for the Northeastern United States for horses not on a continuous deworming program.( i.e. daily Strongid C 2X):

  • January-Ivermectin/praziquantel combination (Equimax)
  • March-Oxibendazole (Anthelcide)
  • May-Moxidectin (Quest) ( Use in horses only. We do not recommend using in miniature horses or ponies.)
  • May-Ivermectin (Equell) for miniature horses and ponies
  • July-Double dose Pyrantel Pamoate (Strongid)
  • September-Ivermectin/Praziquantel combination (Equimax)
  • November-Double dose Fenbendazole (Panacur) This can be repeated for 4 more days if horse is showing signs of small strongyle infestation (poor coat, chronic colic, diarrhea, unthrifty)

**Remember to read the active ingredient. For example fenbendazole is the active ingredient in Panacur and Safeguard.

                                                         

2. Daily Deworming Protocol

Deworm December and June with Ivermectin/praziquantel combination(Equimax) and keep horse on a daily dewormer, pyrantel pamoate (Strongid 2 x). If you choose this protocol, we recommend enrolling in the Preventicare Program offered by Pfizer. 

Note* Before starting the continuous deworming program, deworm with Equimax, Quest or a Panacur Power Pac.